Beginning in First Terran Empire times, sociology became a mathematical discipline and a recognized science.
Camplowicz was one of the pioneers of the field. His work in the history and sociology of minorities remained a classic in the field for centuries. Camplowicz identified what he called the "delta-prime factor," which was a measure of the influence that minorities have on the general society. Once delta-prime reaches a critical value of 1300, a minority has reached the point where it is in no danger from the general society; at higher delta-prime levels, the minority actually becomes fashionable and in-demand.
The planetary sociologist Pilli defined five nonsequential stages in a planet's technological development, ranging from primitive Edens (stage 1),through the worst excesses of early 21st century Terra or later Laxus and Lucifer (stage 4). Pilli's five stages culminated with contemporary technology integrated into natural paradise, like Helox. A fully-mutable environment, totally dependent on technology (i.e. Wakmarrel) is Stage Six.
A typical sociological equation contains such elements as: